The specialties in surgery

Published on : 21 November 202210 min reading time

Surgery is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance.

There are many different types of surgery, each with its own unique characteristics. The most common surgical specialties are general surgery, orthopedic surgery, cardiovascular surgery, and neurosurgery.

General surgery is the surgical specialty that focuses on the abdominal organs (gastrointestinal tract, liver, pancreas, and spleen). Orthopedic surgery is the surgical specialty that focuses on the musculoskeletal system. Cardiovascular surgery is the surgical specialty that focuses on the heart and blood vessels. Neurosurgery is the surgical specialty that focuses on the brain and nervous system.

Each surgical specialty has its own training requirements, which vary depending on the country in which you practice. In the United States, all surgeons must complete a four-year residency in surgery after completing medical school. After completing a residency, some surgeons choose to complete a fellowship in a subspecialty of surgery.

The decision to pursue a career in surgery should not be taken lightly. Surgery is a demanding career that requires long hours, intense concentration, and excellent manual dexterity. However, surgery can be a highly rewarding career that offers the opportunity to make a difference in the lives of others.

General Surgery

There are many specialties in surgery, but perhaps none is as important as general surgery. General surgery is a field of medicine that deals with the surgical treatment of a wide variety of diseases and disorders.

Some of the most common procedures performed by general surgeons include appendectomies, cholecystectomies, hernia repairs, and colorectal surgery. General surgeons also often serve as the primary care physicians for patients with serious medical conditions such as cancer.

While general surgery is a very important specialty, it is important to remember that there are many other specialties in surgery as well. Some of these other specialties include cardiothoracic surgery, neurosurgery, and orthopedic surgery.

Each of these specialties has its own unique skills and training that are necessary to provide the best possible care for patients. When choosing a surgeon, it is important to select one who has the appropriate training and experience for the specific procedure you need.

Thoracic Surgery

Thoracic surgery is the branch of surgery that deals with the surgical treatment of organs inside the thorax (the chest), which includes the lungs, heart, and great vessels. Thoracic surgeons are trained in both surgical and nonsurgical treatment of conditions of the thorax. Thoracic surgery is a relatively new specialty, having only been recognized as a distinct surgical specialty in the early 20th century. The first successful operation to correct a congenital heart defect was performed in 1896, and the first heart-lung transplant was performed in 1963.

Thoracic surgery is typically performed in two types of settings: inpatient (in the hospital) and outpatient (in a clinic or ambulatory surgery center). The vast majority of Thoracic surgeries are performed in an inpatient setting, as most procedures require the use of general anesthesia and/or have a significant risk of complications. The most common types of inpatient Thoracic surgeries include:

-Lung resection (removal of part or all of a lung)

-Pneumonectomy (removal of an entire lung)

– wedge resection (removal of a small section of a lung)

– Lobectomy (removal of a lobe of a lung)

-Thymectomy (removal of the thymus gland)

Outpatient Thoracic surgeries are typically less complex procedures that can be safely performed with local anesthesia and/or sedation. The most common outpatient Thoracic surgeries include:

-Bronchoscopy (insertion of a scope through the mouth or nose to visualize the airways)

-Thoracentesis (removal of fluid from the chest cavity)

– Needle biopsy (removal of tissue samples for laboratory analysis)

Vascular Surgery

Vascular surgery is the surgical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels. Vascular surgery is a subspecialty of general surgery.

Vascular surgeons work closely with other medical specialists, including cardiologists, interventional radiologists, and vascular medicine specialists, to provide comprehensive care for patients with vascular diseases.

The most common types of vascular surgery procedures are angioplasty and stenting, which are used to treat atherosclerosis; bypass surgery, which is used to treat blocked arteries; and endovascular surgery, which is used to treat aneurysms and other vascular abnormalities.

Vascular surgeons also treat patients with venous disorders, such as varicose veins and venous insufficiency. In addition, vascular surgeons are often involved in the care of patients with critical limb ischemia, a condition that can lead to amputation.

Vascular surgery is a highly specialized field, and vascular surgeons must complete a rigorous training program before they can be certified by the American Board of Surgery.

Pediatric Surgery

There are a number of specialties in surgery, and one of them is pediatric surgery. This is a branch of medicine that deals with the surgical care of infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatric surgeons are trained to care for the unique needs of these patients, and they often work closely with other pediatric specialists, such as pediatricians, to provide comprehensive care.

Some of the most common procedures that pediatric surgeons perform include hernia repair, circumcision, and the removal of tonsils and adenoids. They also often treat conditions that require more complex surgery, such as congenital anomalies, tumors, and inflammatory diseases.

In recent years, there has been a growing trend toward minimally invasive surgery in pediatrics. This type of surgery uses small incisions and special instruments to minimize tissue damage and scarring. It can often be performed on an outpatient basis, which can be more convenient for families.

If your child requires surgery, it is important to find a surgeon who has experience and training in pediatrics. You can ask your child’s pediatrician for a referral, or you can search for a pediatric surgeon in your area.


is a medical specialty that deals with the surgical treatment of conditions that affect the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Neurosurgeons are medical doctors who have completed specialized training in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disorders of the nervous system.

The most common type of neurosurgery is performed to treat conditions that result in the loss of function or sensation, such as stroke, head injury, or spinal cord injury. Other common types of neurosurgery include the surgical treatment of tumors of the brain and spine, degenerative diseases of the spine, and disorders of the peripheral nerves.

is a highly technical and complex field of medicine that requires many years of training and experience. Neurosurgeons must have a strong understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system, as well as the surgical and medical treatments available for disorders that affect it.

While neurosurgery is a highly specialized field, there are many different types of neurosurgeons who specialize in different areas of the nervous system. For example, some neurosurgeons specialize in the surgical treatment of disorders of the spine, while others focus on the brain or peripheral nerves.

is a demanding and challenging field of medicine, but it can also be very rewarding. Neurosurgeons have the opportunity to make a difference in the lives of their patients by providing them with the best possible surgical care.

Orthopedic Surgery

Orthopedic surgery is the branch of surgery that deals with the treatment of conditions and injuries of the musculoskeletal system. This includes the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Orthopedic surgeons use a variety of techniques to treat these conditions, including surgeries, joint replacements, and other minimally invasive procedures.

Orthopedic surgery is one of the most common types of surgery performed today. In fact, over 4 million orthopedic procedures are performed each year in the United States alone. While orthopedic surgery can be used to treat a wide variety of conditions, some of the most common reasons for orthopedic surgery include:

-Arthritis: Arthritis is a common condition that causes pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints. Orthopedic surgery can be used to treat arthritis by repairing or replacing damaged joints.

-Bone fractures: Orthopedic surgeons can treat broken bones using a variety of methods, including metal plates and screws, pins, and intramedullary rods.

-Spinal problems: Orthopedic surgery can be used to treat a variety of spinal problems, including herniated discs, degenerative disc disease, and scoliosis.

-Sports injuries: Orthopedic surgery can be used to treat a variety of sports injuries, including ACL tears, rotator cuff tears, and meniscus tears.


There are many different specialties within the field of surgery. One such specialty is urology. is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases of the urinary tract and the male reproductive organs.

Urologists are trained in both surgical and medical aspects of their field. They are skilled in diagnosing and treating conditions of the urinary tract and male reproductive organs. Common conditions that urologists treat include urinary tract infections, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), erectile dysfunction, and kidney stones. Urologists also perform surgery on the urinary tract and male reproductive organs.

The urinary tract includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The male reproductive organs include the testes, penis, and epididymis.

Urologists use a variety of diagnostic tools to evaluate and treat patients with urinary and reproductive disorders. These tools include imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They also use minimally invasive procedures such as urodynamics and cystoscopy.

Urologists work closely with other members of the healthcare team to provide comprehensive care for patients with urinary and reproductive disorders. They often collaborate with nephrologists, urologic oncologists, and reproductive endocrinologists.

Plastic Surgery

Plastic surgery is a branch of medicine that deals with the correction or restoration of form and function. It is divided into two main categories: cosmetic surgery and reconstructive surgery. Cosmetic surgery is performed to improve the appearance of an individual, while reconstructive surgery is performed to correct functional impairments.

The first recorded plastic surgery procedure was performed in 800 BC by Sushruta, a physician in India. He successfully reconstructed the nose by using a piece of skin from the cheek. In 1827, Joseph Carpue performed the first successful modern plastic surgery procedure in England. He successfully removed a tumour from the jaw without disfiguring the patient.

The development of anaesthetics and antibiotics in the late 19th and early 20th centuries made plastic surgery safer and more accessible to the general public. The first cosmetic surgery procedures were performed in the early 1900s. These included procedures such as breast augmentation, rhinoplasty, and facelifts.

The number of plastic surgery procedures performed each year has steadily increased over the past few decades. In 2018, there were over 17 million cosmetic procedures performed in the United States alone. The most popular procedures include breast augmentation, liposuction, and Botox injections.

While plastic surgery can have many benefits, it is important to remember that it is a major surgery with risks and potential complications. It is important to consult with a board-certified plastic surgeon to discuss your goals and concerns before undergoing any procedure.

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